As a vehicle owner, you are looking for driving long distance with lowest fuel consumption, reasonable speed and performance and low pollution. As we know, we can't achieve all of these targets with the conventional petrol cars or electric cars. But what will you say if I tell you that you can get the desired performance with a decrease in fuel consumption? The answer is a hybrid car.
Hybrid car in a simple definition is the one which uses two sources of power to be driven. These sources are mostly gasoline engine and electric motor.
Parts of a Hybrid Car:
The main major components of hybrid car are:
- Gasoline engine with fuel tank:It is smaller with less pollution and greater efficiency compared to conventional engine.
- Rechargeable batteries:Batteries are needed to store and release the required electrical energy to drive the car. The energy from the battery is taken by the motor.
- Electrical Motor:A motor is supplied with electrical energy from the batteries and converts it to mechanical energy to accelerate the car.
- Generator:It converts the mechanical energy from the engine into electrical energy stored in the batteries to be used later.
After showing the major and main cars' part we need to know the different configurations of the vehicle.
Hybrid system configuration:
- Parallel hybrid: The electric motor and the engine can power the vehicle either individually or together. Figure.1
- Series hybrid: The vehicle is driven by an electric motor while the battery energy supply is sufficient and the engine is running as a generator when the battery charge is insufficient. Figure.2
- Series-parallel hybrid: The power is shared between the engine and the motor to drive the wheels via a power split device. The power supplied ratio between the engine and the motor is varied according to driving condition as we will discuss later
But in which condition does the power supplied depend on the motor only or engine only or both of them?
Distribution power supply according to driving mode:
- Starting and moving with low speed:We depend on the rechargeable batteries supplying the electric motor which drives the gear box and the wheels.
- Cruising:The power is supplied from both the engine and the motor. In addition to that, the engine recharges the batteries by the generator.
- Acceleration:The car is driven by both the electric motor and gasoline engine.
- Deceleration:We depend on the electric motor and the batteries are recharged.
Finally, we will make a comparison between hybrid cars' advantages and disadvantages so that you can judge it's better than the conventional one or not.
|Low pollution rates||The initial cost is high|
|Batteries aren't charged by an external source||There is a danger of electrical shock during an accident|
|Warranties available for batteries as well as motors||The vehicle is repaired only by professionals|
|Less dependence on fuels||Spare parts are expensive|